Osteoporosis is a bone weakening condition which can lead to bones becoming fragile and at risk of fractures. Osteoporosis occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women, men over 50 years, and in patients taking long-term oral corticosteroids (glucocorticoids). Other risk factors for osteoporosis include increasing age, vitamin D deficiency, low calcium intake, lack of physical activity, low body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, excess alcohol intake, parental history of hip fractures, a previous fracture at a site characteristic of osteoporotic fractures, and early menopause. Some diseases are also known to be associated with osteoporosis such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Certain medications may also increase the risk of fracture in some patients, through mechanisms such as induction of liver enzymes which interfere with vitamin D metabolism
Osteoporosis is managed with a combination of lifestyle and drug treatment in order to prevent further bone weakening and fractures.